Foundation Health Measures:
Over the course of the decade, the 4 Foundation Health Measures will be used to monitor progress toward promoting health, preventing disease and disability, eliminating disparities, and improving quality of life. These broad, cross-cutting measures include:
1. General Health Status:
Measures of General Health Status include:
Healthy life expectancy
Years of potential life lost
Physically and mentally unhealthy days
Self-assessed health status
Limitation of activity
Chronic disease prevalence
2. Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being:
Measures of Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being include:
Physical, mental, and social health–related quality of life
Participation in common activities
3. Determinants of Health:
A range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status are known as determinants of health. Determinants of health include such things as biology, genetics, individual behavior, access to health services, and the environment in which people are born, live, learn, play, work, and age.
Measures of Disparities and inequity include differences in health status based on:
Physical and mental ability
“Public health measures”
The transmission of influenza during an epidemic or pandemic can be limited through the implementation of individual and societal measures. Good communication and information are critical to encourage implementation.
At an individual level, public health measures such as hand-washing and cough etiquette can be useful in limiting influenza infection.
At a societal level, a number of public health interventions, such as school closures and managing mass gatherings, can also contribute to the mitigation and control of transmission of influenza between individuals, households and across societies.
Public health measures are non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce transmission of infectious diseases including influenza. They can be implemented at individual, community and social levels.